General Stratigraphy of the Western Massif
Vega Huerta - Carbanal Formation
With a minimum thickness of 200 m, this unit is made up of a series
of black and grey, thinly bedded, limestones and with olistostromes
Picos de Europa Formation - Upper Member
Upper - Myachkovskian
Middle - Podolskian
Lower - Kashirskian
Resting on red crinoidal limestones of a few metres, this 500 m
high member is made up of massive, white and fossiliferous limestones
with pink coloration that becomes more frequent higher up.
Picos de Europa Formation - Lower Member
Formed by about 150 m of dark, thinly bedded bioclastic limestones,
that alternate with abundant and shale levels.
Caliza de Montaña - Valdteja Formation
Massive grey limestones, sometimes with fossils. Beds may include
macrofauna and seaweed, or more frequently, microfauna.
This series formed as local carbonate platforms within a
. Sub-tropical marine conditions
occurred in the area around the Picos de Europa, which favoured very
thick carbonates formation under a high sedimentation rate (125
Caliza de Montaña - Barcaliante Formation
Folded limestones of the Barcaliente Formation.
Black, thinly bedded limestones, often laminated black - white,
each often only cm thick. Chert layers.
These rocks have been generated with far lower rates of
sedimentation (20-25 m/ma) and under conditions of deep sedimentation.
Genicera (Alba) Formation
The limestones of the Genicera Formation usually have a red color as seen here near Alba.
Red nodular limestones reaching a thickness of about 50 m.
Its depositional environment is that of a low angle marine shelf. A
very low rate of sedimentation occurred.
Sandstone ribs of the Ermita formation in the proximity of Llomberas
Massive pale limestones.
Sandstone ribs of the Barrios formation at Los Barrios de Luna artificial lake
Upper - Arenigian Age
Lower - Tremadocian Age
White quartz sandstone with some interbedded
micaceous shale and a single
Sandy shale and conglomeratic beds occur in the
middle of the formation and characterise this part of the formation.
The depositional setting of the Barrios
Formation is believed to be marine as suggested by the repeated
occurrence of near shore trace fossils at multiple levels and also by
deeper marine facies that include beds and
These can be found around Vegabaño.
on the move
Upper - Potsdamian Age
Lower - Acadian Age
Green mudstones and scarce glauconitic fine-grained sandstones,
with trace fossils.
reflect soft substrata very rich in
nutrients, exploited by a diversity of soft-bodied organisms together
with trilobites in an open setting.
Láncara and Oville formations
Geology and speleogenesis of the M2 Cave System, Western Massif, Picos de Europa, Northern Spain, Kevin J Senior (YUCPC), Cave Science, 1987,
14, 3, 93-104, in English. PDF (5MB)
Cantabrian Geogallery, in German